Project Motivation and Background
One in five adults worldwide does not know how to read. In rural regions of West Africa, up to 75% of the population is illiterate. According to Barbara Garner of the World Education Organization, "It's the lack of resources"—specifically access to books and lighting—rather than the lack of interest in education that contributes to these numbers.
To date, more than 100 students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Cambridge University (UK), and Babson University have contributed to the business planning, design and field testing of a solution since the project’s inception as a DtM design challenge in spring 2002.
A night-time women's literacy course in rural Mali [World Education Organization]
See more pictures from World Education's classrooms.
DtM, World Education Partner with US AID for Kinkajou Pilot Test
The United States Agency for International Development has partnered with Design that Matters and World Education in support of a Mali-based pilot test of the Kinkajou Portable Library and Projection System. The partnership is through USAID’s Global Development Alliance program.
Under the agreement, USAID will contribute funding (approximately $500,000) and technical support to the 24-month pilot that will test the projector in 45 adult literacy classes across Mali starting in January 2005. The pilot will enhance the learning experience of 1,500 men and women enrolled in community-based adult literacy classes across Mali.
More broadly, the goals for this pilot are threefold:
>> Increase access to education by increasing the capacity of educators to teach at night
>>Enhance motivation and learning—and thus educational efficiency—via the use of a new educational technology appropriate to developing countries that can be used not only in the educational sector but in all sector that do community education, including agriculture, health, and environment
>>To model an economic development process of shifting the production and ongoing support and maintenance of new technologies to local manufacturers and entrepreneurs.
Read additional project details at the Kinkajou Design Journal.
We are currently conducting a six-month pedagogical test of 45 Kinkajou Microfilm Projectors with our partner World Education in night-time adult literacy classrooms across rural Mali. Also in Mali, Ashoka Fellow Maria Kieta Diarra and her colleagues at the Institute for Popular Education (IEP) are evaluating the Kinkajou for use in primary school education. Finally, in Bangladesh, Ashoka Fellow Muhammad Ibrahim and his colleagues at the Center for Mass Education in Science (CMES) are evaluating the Kinkajou for use in their 500 village basic schools.
The design under test is our fourth-generation "delta" prototype, representing the work of over 180 volunteers including students from MIT, Stanford, Worcester Polytechnic, Harvard, Tufts, Babson, Stanford and Cambridge University (UK) and professional volunteers from Fisher-Price, Optikos and Chipwrights.
The Kinkajou Microfilm Projector: Fourth-Generation or "Delta" Prototype Assembly, Including 12v Power Pack and 12W Solar Panel
Kinkajou in a night-time adult literacy classroom, Kati, Mali
Demonstrating image size outside a classroom in Digani, Mali
As we collect user feedback from field testing, we continue to develop the Kinkajou project along the following lines:
Identify additional users and markets for Kinkajou Projector - in addition to researching other organizations running night-time adult literacy courses, we are working to identify additional adult education markets (including technical training and health education), as well as applications in small-scale businesses, for example as a marketing tool for micro-enterprise.
Develop a low-cost, renewable power supply - the current solar panel and battery power supply developed for the World Education test is far too expensive for volume production. Our specific need is for a low-cost, 5-7W (or 15-21 W-hr/day) off-grid power supply. The Kinkajou is representative of a range of useful low-power appliances for underserved communities in developing countries, from medical devices to teaching tools, that appear slightly too big for a Freeplay radio-style hand-crank, and very small to justify the expense of a major solar power installation. [Read the Kinkajou Power Supply Design Challenge Summary]
Investigate the feasibility of a Multimedia Projector - As an extension of the microfilm projector design, DtM is currently studying the technical and economic feasibility of developing a low-cost multimedia display device as a stand-alone or as a companion product to a PC as a teaching tool and curriculum enhancement for underserved communities, primarily in developing countries. As a baseline, DtM is requesting assistance in reviewing the current situation and trends in commercially available data projectors. We are also interested in exploring design concepts that would enable lower cost with adequate functionality for the developing world. Desired features include low lifetime cost of ownership, meaning (a) low initial cost, (b) long life, (c) low maintenance costs and (d) low cost of lighting and other consumables. The resulting design must be maintainable on a local basis. [Read the Multimedia Projector Design Challenge Summary]
Kinkajou Video Available On-Line
SolidWorks, a DtM sponsor, has produced a five-minute video about the Kinkajou Microfilm Projector project, which includes interviews with DtM staff and students and footage from last summer's field test with the beta prototype in West Africa. This is a good overall introduction to the project and our objectives. A compressed copy of the video is available on-line here (10 MB Windows Media File). Contact Design that Matters for a high-resolution DVD or VHS copy.
Kinkajou on NPR
In July 2003, NPR's Morning Edition ran an interview with DtM cofounder Timothy Prestero and journalist Suzanne Bates discussing Design that Matters and the Kinkajou Microfilm Projector.
Kinkajou Field Test and Design Review in West Africa
In summer 2003, Design that Matters and four members of the MIT Kinkajou design team conducted an extensive field study in Mali and Benin. Among the objectives of this study was to field-test the Kinakjou beta prototype. This journal is an account of our experience. Click here for the Kinkajou Design Review entries in our 2003 West Africa Field Journal.
Prior Art: View-Master Projectors
View-Master Show & Tell Projector and the View-Master Projector and Telescope. DtM has bought one of the Show & Tell projectors to play with. At a retail cost of US$16, this Fisher-Price toy is an excellent model in terms of cost and robustness. See below for pictures of our projector, and design comments.Continue reading "Prior Art: View-Master Projectors"
Design Concept: Wind-Up Browsers
Saul Griffith developed the original microfilm projector design concept through the 1999 MIT Media Lab course "Wind Up Browsers". He posted a web page with his notes and design concepts.
"Concept 4. Audio cassette form with microfiche "Library". tape is series of microfilm page images. A small lens, and potentially LED for viewing / projecting. Pages are advanced by winding tape. An indexing / hypertext system could be included whereupon polarized light or filtered image superimposes other page number references (links) over existing page." -- from Saul Griffith's wind-up browser design concept summary page.
Proof-of-Concept: The Low-Cost Library Project
David Lobosco, Sal Scaturro and Saul Griffith worked on the initial proof-of-concept model of the microfilm projection system, as part of the DtM02 Seminar and Design Studio course at the MIT Media Lab. The initial design used a 1-watt red LED to back-project an image of microfilm onto a wax paper screen. The group stored a number of data files and internet references in their ThinkCycle on-line archive.
"The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost system for delivering the information found in printed or web-based material to those in the developing world. Our idea is to store the information on microflim rolls that would be housed in ordinary cassette tapes. The microfilm would contain 4mm x 3mm images that could then be magnified using simple optics and either viewed by a single user, or projected. An individual could use a binocular device held up to the eyes to view the information while a separate tool could be designed to display the image on a screen for multi-person viewing. The microfilm reader would either be battery powered, using a Light Emitting Diode (LED) as the light source, or utilize the light from the sun as its source of illumination. A single microfilm cassette will hold about 90,000 pages of text or graphics." -- from their initial project proposal.
Alpha Prototype Solid Model
The MIT 2.009 team has put together a solid model of the Kinkajou alpha prototype using SolidWorks.
>>Kinkajou Alpha Prototype Solid Model [8MB ZIP archive of SolidWorks files]
Exploded view of the alpha prototype. See the pdf version [PDF]
Kinkajou Alpha Prototype Details
Here are some resources related to the Kinkaou alpha prototype:
>>Kinkajou alpha prototype website
>>Kinkajou Alpha Prototype "Commercial" illustrating product features [8MB Quicktime Movie]
>>Kinkajou Alpha Prototype Product Contract [30KB MS Excel file]
>>An initial survey of prior art (handheld microfilm readers and the "portable school") [196KB PDF]
Kinkajou Alpha Team Members: Teresa Baker, Sarah Daigh, Alex DeFeo, Katheen Dobson, Kateri Garcia, Leonardo Hochberg, Joel Jaimes, Cat Kelly, Tulika Khemani, Monica Krishnan, Joshua Ornstein, Beto Peliks, Ray Speth, Martin Tolliver, Eric Varady, Philip Vargas
Kinkajou Advisors: Doug Vincent, Dave Meeker, Beth Marcus, Timothy Prestero
Course Instructors and Thesis Instructors: Woodie Flowers, Dave Wallace, Yang Shao-Horn, Sang-Gook Kim
Beta Prototype Solid Model
The 2002-2003 MIT team has put together a solid model of the Kinkajou beta prototype using SolidWorks.
>>Kinkajou Beta Prototype Solid Model [6MB ZIP archive of SolidWorks files]
Exploded view of the beta prototype. See the pdf version [PDF]
Beta Prototype Photos
Here are some pictures of the Kinkajou Microfilm Projector prototype (click image to open higher-resolution copies).
MIT Kinkajou Beta Team Reports
Martin Tolliver was the lead designer for the kinkajou microfilm projector beta prototype. His two reports have information on the entire optics assembly and many of the Kinkajou design criteria.
>> Martin Tolliver - The Kinkajou Project: Power System Optimization for a Low Cost Microfilm Projector
>> Martin Tolliver - Kinkajou Project: Power System Specification for a Low Cost Microfilm Projector
Joel Jaimes worked on the optics assembly. His thesis includes specifications for the condenser lens.
>> Joel Jaimes - The Study And Development of a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Microfilm Optics Unit
Kateri Garcia was the student project manager. Her thesis includes a bill of materials for the beta prototype, and details of the history of the projector.
>> Kateri Garcia - Evolution of the Kinkajou Projector: Motivating Team Members Beyond Classroom Learning
Kinkajou Beta Team Members: Teresa Baker, Stacy Defigueredo, Kateri Garcia, Leonardo Hochberg, Joel Jaimes, Tulika Khemani, Beto Peliks, Martin Tolliver, Philip Vargas
Course Instructors and Thesis Instructors: Woodie Flowers, Dave Wallace, Yang Shao-Horn, Sang-Gook Kim
WPI LED Driver Circuit Design
Students in WPI's Fall 2003 course EE2799 "Electrical and Computer Engineering Design" worked on two separate design projects for the Kinkajou, the first an improved LED and fan driver circuit, and the second a robust battery charging circuit. Here is a selection of their final reports, all of which are currently under review.Continue reading "WPI LED Driver Circuit Design"
Beta Prototype Lenses
Projector lens details from Kinkajou team member Martin Tollliver:
I ordered a BW992BR and a BW1043BR from Boowon Optical to use as the beta prototype projector lens.
The 992 is the first lens listed on the page. The 1043 is no longer listed. I think they both did fine. We went with a 1/2" CCD lens because that is the approximate size of the microfilm image (1/2" square).
Condenser lens details from Kinkajou team member Joel Jaimes:
The lenses in the condenser were purchased from Edmund Industrial Optics in New Jersey (800) 363-1992. I still have their catalog. As to the focal lengths:
>> Plano-convex (part number F45-097) has an effective focal length of 25.0mm
>> Double-convex (part number F45-161) has an effective focal length of 35.0mm
The catalog doesn't show how to calculate the focal length for our condenser as a system, as it has three lenses. The focal length for a system (Fsys) consisting of two lenses with focal lengths of F1 and F2 would be: Fsys = [F1 * F2] /[F1 + F2 - d] The distance between the two lenses is d. [see Joel's senior thesis for more details]
A Discussion of the Kinkajou Light Source
The attached page contains an archive of an ongoing email discussion over the proper light source for the Kinkajou Microfilm Projector. The projector currently uses a LumiLEDs Luxeon Star V LED (5-watt Lambertian White, Part Number LXHL-MW1D) rated at 25 lumens. There are major issues with the LED heat and reliability. One proposal is to switch to a halogen bulb.
To join the discussion, please send us your comments either via email or by using the comments link below.Continue reading "A Discussion of the Kinkajou Light Source"
LumiLEDs Luxeon Portable V LED
The Kinkajou Microfilm Projector currently uses a Luxeon Star LXHL-LW6C, called a “Portable V, Lambertian white” manufactured by LumiLEDs.
>>The LimuLEDs product data sheet
Local Production of Microfilm Content
Many promising "appropriate" technologies have failed because the design limited the user's ability to adapt the tool to their particular needs. Among the various user issues identified during the 2003 West Africa field test of the beta projector, local production of microfilm content rated among the most serious. Without the ability to more easily create their own microfilm content for the projector, users were unlikely to adopt the design.
After some internet research, it appears that we have found our interim soluition: Kodak's Desktop 3 Microfilmer, which prints 16mm microfilm spools from paper documents 2.25 to 9.00 inches (5.7 to 22.2 cm) wide by 2.5 to 11.7 inches (6.4 to 29.7 cm) long. At roughly US$800, this is an expensive printer. We're continuing to investigate other options for local production of content.
Kinkajou Volume Manufacture
Project to develop Kinkajou for volume manufacture post 6 month field test. Institute for Manufacturing, Cambridge University (UK)Continue reading "Kinkajou Volume Manufacture"
Kinkajou Gamma Housing Concept
Illustration for second development report.
Kinkajou Gamma Package Concept
Stamped sheet aluminum top plate contains dual film advance knobs.
See the full schedule: [PDF]
Product Development Reports: Mar-Apr 2004
This first development report for the Gamma prototype covers experiments on power consumption and temperature control on LED and incandescent light sources. Covers 15-29 March 2004.
Read the full report: [MS Word doc] [PDF]
See the full schedule: [PDF]
Gamma Design Ready for Review
The Luxeon Star LED has been tested, successfully, for 500 hours. The Gamma prototype of the Kinkajou has now been designed. The design will be reviewed on 21 April 2004, and then the prototype fabricated. The report, including pictures is at:
First Kinkajou Gamma Design Review
We had an extremely productive design review with MIT Mechanical Engineering Prof. Woodie Flowers, Kinkajou Alpha and Beta design team member Beto Peliks, MIT LFM team members Satish Krishnan and the Gamma design team. A number of questions and suggestions resulted in the following design modifications (detailed below).
DtM is grateful to the design review participants for their time and their great ideas. We would also like to thank the staff at the MIT Lab for Energy and the Environment, for putting up with DtM as we hog yet another afternoon in the conference room.
Allen and Woodie discuss the clutches
Continue reading "First Kinkajou Gamma Design Review"
Clockwise from L: Allen Armstrong, Satish Krishnan, Woodie Flowers, Neil Cantor, Beto Peliks, Peter Fichter
Project Management Reports: Apr 2004
These product management reports include updates to the project schedule and the product requirements sheet, and address various other aspects address of the ongoing Kinkajou redesign.
Gamma Design Nearing Completion
Following last week's design review, changes have been incorporated in the model to address items developed in the review. Major changes include elimination of the sliding lens cover and hinges, improvements in the optical path, provision of a "crash cage", and improved sealing.
Kinkajou Optics Completed at Optikos
Thank you to Steve Fantone and Paul Rose of Optikos for their invaluable help in adapting the plastic lenses from Fisher Price toy projectors to this application.
Team members Peter Fichter and Allen Armstrong reviewing the Kinkajou optics design with Optikos CEO Steven Fantone (center).
Optikos engineer Paul Rose in the lab, testing the Kinkajou optics layout.
Paul’s optical design printout
Babson's Draft Business Plan for the Kinkajou
What is the opportunity for the Kinkajou Microfilm Projector among organizations that teach nighttime adult literacy classes for beginning readers in developing countries? Students enrolled in Prof. Ernie Parizeau's course on entrepreneurship and new ventures at Babson College have prepared the following draft business plan to help DtM's effort to make the projector broadly available to communities in need.
DtM@Babson Kinkajou Business Planning Team: Shannon McCarthy, Brad Sykes and Brigette Gehring
Kinkajou Gamma Prototype Construction Begins
The Gamma prototype design is now complete, and machining begun. A number of detail changes have improved producibility. The major ones are the elimination of the pressed contour in the covers and a redesigned aluminum cage that can be water-jet cut flat, and bent to shape. Two acceptable quotes have been received for the extruded heat sink. 90% of the purchased parts and material for the prototype has been received. The optics have been redesigned to incorporate 3 condenser lens elements and the projector lens housing has been redesigned to fit a tethered lens cap used on propane bottles.Continue reading "Kinkajou Gamma Prototype Construction Begins"
Manufacturing Volume Conclusions
After research and calculation, the following manufacturing scenarios have been recommended:
> Up to 1,000 units
> 5,000 units
1. Nature of Market
The total available and penetrable market has been estimated at 58,000 units. This market is characterised by a complex network of organisations split in to three groups. These are defined as International Governmental Aid Agencies (e.g. USAID, DFID), Local Governments and Non-Governmental Organisations (e.g. World Education, Education International). Of these three, the primary target would be NGOs.
The following issues create uncertainty in the market:
> A high variation in the needs of potential customers.
> A wide variety of opinion on the most effective teaching methods.
Due to the above mentioned uncertainty and variation in customer requirements, it is estimated that no single batch of similar (but not necessarily identical) units, will exceed 5,000.
This does not allow for different microfilm which would vary in much smaller numbers, (e.g. around 500) this is likely to be customised at approximately a country level.
3. Target Projects
The following NGO projects are considered to be the target:
> Adult literacy
> Other adult training schemes
If the light source can be improved to enable use during daylight, this market could expand both in these sectors and others such as the private school system.
MIT Leaders for Manufacturing Final Report
MIT LFM students Mike Parkins and Satish Krishnan took on the Kinkajou projector design challenge as a volunteer project, focusing on Manufacturability, Variation Sensitivity and Axiomatic (Coupled/Uncoupled) Design. Their goal was to consider these aspects individually and collectively to uncover the design aspects that are most critical to performance and those that have the most potential to improve the performance or robustness of the product.
Mike Parkins and Satish Krishnan at MIT
Thornton, A. C. (2003). Variation Risk Management: Focusing Quality Improvements in Product Development and Production. New York, John Wiley & Sons
Whitney, D. (2004) Mechanical Assemblies: Their Design, Manufacture, and Role in Product Development. New York, Oxford University Press
Suh, Nam Pyo (2001). Axiomatic Design: Advances and Applications. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001
Recommended MIT Courses:
2.882 Axiomatic Design, Prof. Nam P. Suh
2.875 Mechanical Assembly, Prof. Dan Whitney
2.744 Product Design, Profs. Woody Flowers and David Wallace
2.739 Product Design and Development, Profs. Steve Eppingerand Thomas Roemer
Gamma Prototype Constructed
I’ve now completed construction of the Gamma prototype. Thanks to Beto Peliks for his help with the MIT water-jet machine, which cut out the sheet metal parts: the covers, bumpers and film gate components. The heatsinks were cut on a CNC Bridgeport mill and the cylindrical parts on a 10” South Bend lathe. The sheet metal parts were bent on an arbor press using a 1” wide 90º punch and die. Threaded inserts for M4 screws were installed in the heatsinks with an M4 capscrew mounted in a “hand tapper” to keep the insert aligned with its hole. (A hand tapper looks like a small drill press with a hand crank instead of a motor.)
Project engineer Allen Armstrong (L), product manager Peter Fichter, and first light with the Kinkajou gamma prototype.
Continue reading "Gamma Prototype Constructed"
Gamma prototype inverted with bottom plate and film reels removed.
Product Management Reports: May 2004
These product management reports include updates to the project schedule and the product requirements sheet, and address various other aspects address of the ongoing Kinkajou redesign.
Second Kinkajou Gamma Design Review
This was another excellent productive design review, again with MIT Mechanical Engineering Prof. Woodie Flowers, Kinkajou Alpha and Beta design team member Beto Peliks and the Gamma design team. Joining us were Owl Engineering product designers Peter Costa and Chris Homes.
The concentration of this design review was the Gamma prototype as currently configured. Given the committed delivery date of September 1, we wanted to focus on any perceived problems or short comings which could jeopardize the field evaluation. Issues are as discussed not according to priority.
For design issues and recommended actions, read the report: [MS Word file]
Back row from L: Owl Engineering Peter Costa, Woodie Flowers, Owl Engineering Chris Homes
Right side from R: Neil Cantor, Denise Kulawik, Peter Fichter, Tim McNerney, Beto Peliks
Two views of the Kinkajou Gamma (minus the crash guard)
DtM is grateful to the design review participants for their time, their great ideas, and for putting up with our lousy coffee. We would also like to thank the Media Lab for arranging this excellent temporary office space for the summer.
University of Cambridge IfM Final Report
"This report examines the future of the Kinkajou Microfilm Projector as preparation for the first large scale test begins. The market potential, volume manufacturing options and project development are all investigated."
Solid models (exterior and interior) of Gareth's design.
A size comparison of the different generations of Kinkajou prototypes.
Gareth also prepared a case study of the Freeplay Lifeline Radio, as an example in terms of product ruggedness and for the idea that a similar source of renewable power could be integrated for self sufficiency.
Gareth Sumner with the Freeplay Lifeline Radio, an excellent manufacturing model for the Kinkajou projector.
Kinkajou Redesign for 10 Units
Following our decision to reduce financial exposure by producing just 10 units, I have redesigned the Kinkajou Gamma prototype (maybe it's now the Delta?) to use a stock heatsink (Aavid 60520) instead of the custom extrusion. I've included Peter's excellent handle design and large rubber bumpers to cushion falls. The projection lens is pulled inside the case to maintain the present, effective, optical design with the flat heatsink. A zero-power glass window will be added for protection in lieu of the plastic lens cap.
The reel drives are unchanged:
The Aavid heat sink forms the rear of the housing. Luckily, it's 250mm wide, just enough to house the reels, condenser lens and switch. The PCB fits behind one of the reels. The LED, PCB and condenser optics are unchanged.
Exploded view of the Kinkajou "delta" prototype. See the pdf version [PDF]
Comparison of the Kinkajou beta and delta prototypes.
First Kinkajou Delta Prototype Built
The "delta", or fourth-generation, Kinkajou microfilm projector prototype has made the leap from SolidWorks to reality. Only a few design changes remain: making more room for the circuit board, and changing some parts of the housing from aluminum to plastic.
The Kinkajou "delta", or fourth-generation, prototype
From left, project electrical engineer Tim McNerny, lead engineer Allen Armstrong, and product manager Peter Fichter discuss the new prototype.
An early prototype of the new Kinkajou driver circuit.
Kinkajou Power Supply: Solar Lanterns
Some research into the Freeplay radio's crank generator suggests that it might not be the ideal solution for our application. David Gordon Wilson's book Bicycling Science suggests that the best output we could hope from from a one-handed crank generator would be 15 watts, which would yield a 1:3 crank-to-use ratio for the Kinkajou (ie one hour of cranking for every three hours of use).
We are now looking into solar lanterns as a potential off-the-shelf integrated power supply for the Kinkajou--one that has the added benefit of supply the classroom with light when the projector is off. Unlike the Freeplay radio, which consumes less than one watt, many solar lanterns are designed to store and supply power for fluorescent bulbs consuming 10 or more watts. Some lanterns even include a 12V DC power outlet, for running radios and tape recorders.
"ITDG's consulting subsidiary ITC have developed a low cost Solar Lantern designed to make this source of energy more accessible. The lantern, now in prototype, can provide up to six hours of high quality light, or a combination of light and radio output to bring news and information to households." -- from the ITDG website. Here is a summary of the ITDG solar lantern project. Here is a final report on the Glowstar product development process (PDF). Additional specs are available through Sollatek, the lantern manufacturer, for example this lantern spec sheet (PDF).
Kinkajou Delta: Exploded Drawing and Bill of Materials
Attached is the revised delta prototype design drawing along with a bill of materials for the housing and mechanical assemblies. [PDF file]
LED Projectors for Multimedia
"Imagine that your mobile phone or PDA had a display the size of a laptop’s but still fit snugly in your pocket. Hardware engineers at several companies are working on miniature video projectors that promise just that. Using projection, 'you can make an image larger than the size of the device you carry,' says research scientist Ramesh Raskar of the Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories in Cambridge, MA."
"Key to the new projectors are lights small enough to squeeze into a PDA-sized gadget but bright enough to display crisp images. Lumileds Lighting in San Jose, CA, has built a prototype projector roughly the size of a pocket camera that employs small, powerful light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to throw an image the size and brightness of a laptop’s screen onto any white surface. The Mitsubishi lab is using LEDs to build an even smaller projector, about the length and width of a credit card."
"The first pocket-sized projectors, available within the next three years, will probably be stand-alone accessories priced at $300 to $900, the companies predict, but the ultimate goal is to fit them inside handhelds. And with camera phone owners snapping photos by the thousands—manufacturers will ship an estimated 800 million camera phones by 2007—a built-in projector that displays photos in larger formats could be a big draw for cellular customers."
"Beyond that, says Adrian Cable, director of Light Blue Optics, a spinoff of the University of Cambridge in England that is developing a holographic miniprojector, “You can imagine a video analogue of the iPod that you could download DVDs into” and use as a portable cinema projector. And that would be infinitely cooler than a pocket laser pointer." -- Charles Q. Choi, "Pocket Projectors", Technology Review, October 2004
>> M. Keuper, G. Harbers, S. Paolini, "RGB LED Illuminator for Pocket-Sized Projectors", Society for Information Display (SID) Exhibition 2004 Digest
>> R Raskar, J vanBaar, P Beardsley, T Willwacher, S Rao, C Forlines, "iLamps: Geometrically Aware and Self-Configuring Projectors", SIGGRAPH 2003
>> R Raskar, J vanBaar, J Chai, "A Low Cost Projector Mosaic", ACCV 2002
Society for Information Display: recent papers by Blue Light Optics and Mitsubishi
Kinkajou Delta Survives Environmental Testing
DtM lead electrical engineer Tim McNerney reports that the Kinkajou has passed over a week of rigorous environmental testing with no failures. Tim ran the Kinkajou through the following temperature cycle from Sep 26 through Oct 06, in a climate-controlled oven with the projector running constantly on a 12v power supply.
5 minute warm-up, 30 minutes at 120F;
5 minutes cool-off, 30 minutes at 32F
We can also report that the Kinkajou is not appropriate for use in 120C environments, as we discovered when a glitch in the oven controller lead to death-by-melting for one prototype Kinkajou!
Kinkajou Delta Design Observations
Two observations on the current design. First, the edges of the heat sink fins as delivered from the manufacturer are too sharp. As a safety concern, we will chamfer the edges of the heat sink fins in the production run.
Second, there seems to be a risk of a "guillotine effect" where the cord can get pinched between the handle and the upper inside edge of the ABS side panels. We will investigate this further--if necessary, we can also chamfer the edge of the ABS panels in the production run.
A Projector In Your Pocket
"It takes squinting and guesswork to make out the details of postage-stamp-size snapshots displayed on cellphones and digital cameras. But researchers are working on pocket-size projectors so that one day people will be able to see a high-resolution slide show right out of a camera, a cellphone or an organizer."
"In the future, the miniprojectors may also be attached to DVD players, so people can watch a movie with a TV-quality picture on a nearby wall."
"Most standard digital projectors are bulky. Even the trimmest video projectors used for office presentations have the dimensions and the weight of a telephone book. But prototypes of a new generation of miniprojectors, including ones only slightly thicker than a credit card, have been developed, some based on light-emitting diodes, others on lasers." -- From "For Your Viewing Pleasure, a Projector in Your Pocket" by Anne Eisenberg, New York Times, November 4, 2004
"Screw the Kinkajou" Party A Success
This Fall, Design that Matters and World Education are launching a two-year pedagogical test of the Kinkajou Microfilm Projector in the adult language classrooms of 45 rural villages in Mali. To meet the start of teacher training in Mali on December 6th, we have to ship all 45 Kinkajou Projectors by Wednesday Nov 11th, next week! All of the parts have finally arrived, but the schedule has been very tight and DtM lead engineer Allen Armstrong has been working frantically to assembly the 45 Kinkajou projectors.
Volunteers to the rescue! This Sunday afternoon, we had a "Screw the Kinkajou" party at Allen's workshop to help with the mechanical assembly. The team made tremendous progress and saved our bacon!
DtM and the Kinkajou project are very grateful for the help of the following volunteers, who sacrificed a beautiful Fall afternoon to labor away in our dungeon sweatshop in Lexington: MIT MacArthur Genius and all-around Appropriate Technology Whiz Amy Smith, DtM Graphic Designer Tyler Kemp-Benedict and her husband, Master Screwdriver Operator Eric Kemp-Benedict, MIT ESD grad student Stephanie Dalquist and MIT 2.009 student Jenny Hu. Official DtM mascot Nikko made a brief appearance, to roll around in the wood shavings and investigate all the gadgets on the floor.
Kinkajou Production Wrapping Up
The Kinkajou Gamma design team is putting the finishing touches on our 45-unit production run for World Education in Mali. Product Manager Peter Fichter has finished building all of the Kinkajou power packs, Lead Mechanical Engineer Allen Armstrong is wrapping up production of the projectors, and Lead Electrical Engineer Tim McNerney is running final tests on the driver code. The team has done an amazing job of leaping over the usual, extraordinary last-minute hurdles to deliver an outstanding product.
Production Run of the Kinkajou Delta Prototype
Packaging for delivery
Projectors bound for West Africa, specifically adult literacy courses in 45 rural Malian villages
SMS Guerilla Projector
The SMS Guerilla Projector takes messages sent to it via SMS and projects them onto any surface. Made by Troika, a London-based collective of designers and artists, the projector consists of a mobile phone, camera lens and slide projector.
Here is a screen grab of the Troika website: [PDF]
"Chances are you can’t remember the last time you hauled a projector out of the attic to look at slides or movies. But, says Ramesh Raskar, you may soon carry one with you everywhere you go. Raskar, a research scientist at Cambridge, MA’s Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, sees tiny projectors as the solution to one of the fundamental problems with our ever shrinking cell phones, PDAs, digital cameras, and other portable devices. The gizmos carry more and more of our data, but they are running out of room to display it to us. Build a tiny projector into each of those devices, though, and the world becomes your display."
"Raskar’s team has developed hardware and software that can project digital images onto whatever surface is handy—the wall, say, or a desktop—and make them look good even if the impromptu screen isn’t nice and smooth. And “once you buy into this notion that people would like to have this kind of an attachment,” he asks, “what will they do beyond just looking at those images?” Raskar envisions projectors as the heart of a whole new way of interacting with the world, and he shared his vision with Technology Review senior editor Rebecca Zacks." -- From "Portable Projectors", by Rebecca Zacks, Technology Review, Dec 2004
"Kinkajuice" Human-Powered Charger
Behold, the Kinkajuice!
Developed by MIT students in the 2.009 class, the Kinkajuice has great potential as an efficient way to charge batteries in places where electricity is hard to come by. Based on an erg (rowing) machine, the Kinkajuice uses the long muscle groups of the legs and back to get a long power stroke, which is converted to DC power and stored in an attached 12V battery. The efficiency of the Kinkajuice is significantly higher than that of bicycle chargers or hand-cranks.
Kinkajuice Team members
The Kinkajuice was originally designed as an alternative way to power a Kinkajou that didn't require a solar panel. Given the right plug, the Kinkajuice should be able to power at 5-15W device.
Made for each other...
As part of the Design that Matters visit to Mali in November of 2004, team member Christine Lin brought along a Kinkajuice for field testing.
Christine Lin demonstrating the Kinkajuice at an elementary school in the villlage of Sebenakoro
A young girl giving the Kinkajuice a try at the Institute for Popular Education in Kati
Kinkajou at IEP in Mali
The DtM team met with Ashoka fellow Maria Diarra Keita at her Institute for Popular Education (IEP), located just outside of Bamako. Teachers at IEP are using a donated Kinkajou in elementary classrooms during the day, providing a valuable new context for pedagogical testing.
IEP is run by Maria, Cheick Oumar Couliabaly, and Debbie Fredo. The first-ever user test of the Kinkajou was by Maria's children, who had a blast playing with the beta prototype for the three hours while the Maria and the DtM team were having dinner.
IEP founders Maria Keita and Cheick Oumar Coulibaly, with Neil
3rd and 4th-grade students crowd around the Kinkajou
HBS-Fletcher Team Tackles Kinkajou Market Segmentation
DtM must add additional functionality to the Kinkajou to make its benefits available to the widest possible audience. That’s the recommendation from a team of students enrolled in a Harvard Business School course called “Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector” taught by Prof. Jane Wei-Skillern in fall 2004
Specifically, the team recommended enhancing image contrast so teachers could use the projector during the day. DtM designed the projector for use in nighttime classes. The team also recommended giving teachers the capability to project locally-produced content from paper and other media and not just microfilm.
The team based their recommendations on feedback from interviews conducted with 18 organizations that operate in a variety of fields all over the world. They included Africare, Peace Corps, Compassion International, CARE, Pathfinder International, Accion, Zambian Education Ministry, Ubuntu Education Fund, World Bank, IRC and other organizations.
Team members included (from left below) Antonio Oftelie, Nadaa Taiyab and Matthew Wolfe. Details about the team's findings are available in the report titled, "A Market Analysis of the Kinkajou Projector."
MIT LFM Tiger Team Takes On Kinkajou Power Challenge
Students enrolled in MIT’s Leaders for Manufacturing Program in fall 2004 partnered with DtM to help identify a low-cost (stretch target set at US$25 at volume), 5-15W (or 15-50 W-hr/day) off-grid power supply to run the Kinkajou.
Team members Yue Cathy Chang, Hong Hong, Manish Jhunjhunwala, Todd Ruddick and Jeremy Weinstein explored a range of solutions from human power to biomass to micro turbines and pico-hyrdo to fuel cells and solar arrays. In the end, they recommended two alternatives for DtM to consider, including a model for a micro-franchise built around energy rental. Click here to see their report and recommendations.
The Kinkajou is representative of useful low-power appliances for underserved communities, from medical devices to teaching tools, that appear slightly too big for a Freeplay-style hand-crank, and very small to justify the expense of a major solar power installation.
Kinkajou at CMES in Bangladesh
As part of its South Asia tour, the DtM team met with representatives from the Center for Mass Education in Science (CMES) in Dhaka. CMES was founded in 1978 by Ashoka Fellow Dr. Mohammad Ibrahim, the first Fellow in Bangladesh, and provides basic literacy and vocational education to over 50,000 students annually.
Design that Matters visited CMES in order to explore a possible collaboration on tools for student self-directed learning. As part of the needs assessment, the team visited Mudibari basic school in Kayetpara, Gazipur District and brought out the Kinkajou.
Focusing the Kinkajou for a trial run
Demonstrating the Kinkajou in a typical primary school classroom
New fans of the Kinkajou...
BBC Article on EduVision stylus in Kenya
"It is a pilot project run by EduVision, which is looking at ways to use low cost computer systems to get up-to-date information to students who are currently stuck with ancient textbooks.
"Matthew Herren from EduVision told the BBC programme Go Digital how the non-governmental organisation uses a combination of satellite radio and handheld computers called E-slates: 'The E-slates connect via a wireless connection to a base station in the school. This in turn is connected to a satellite radio receiver. The data is transmitted alongside audio signals.'"
Schoolchildren working with their handheld "E-slates"
See the EduVision website
Mali Field Visit, March 21-25
Here are some classroom action shots from our most recent field visit. At this point, the night-time adult literacy courses have been underway for six to eight weeks, at a rate of three to four classes per week. Each village class has two volunteer instructors, or karamogos. Both instructors received training in the samagoya literacy method from the Malian NGOs partnering with World Education. In addition, one member from each team attended the Kinkajou training seminar run by World Education before the start of the school year.
Kinkajou #131 in Kati, near Bamako
The instructors in Kati, a village about 30km from Bamako, were very creative about how they used the Kinkajou. The projected image filled one whole wall of the classroom. The result were letters over a foot tall, easy to read from any point in the classroom. This was important, as the karamogos only had one kerosene lantern for the entire classroom, making it impossible for the students to read from their workbooks at their desks.
Demonstrating image size in Digani
At another class in Digani, near Segou, we took the Kinkajou outside to demonstrate ways of changing image size and brightness for the instructor. Note that the field team, Mali staff, students and instructors are included for scale.
Visits to Village Classrooms in Mali Highlight Challenge to Nighttime Learning
The field visit provided us an opportunity to gather additional data about the classroom environment in villages across Mali. In total we visited four classrooms over a three day period simply to feel what it's like to try to learn in this environment and to listent to students and teachers share their experiences with us.
The following document describes environmental conditions found in each of the classroom as well as interactions between students and teachers over each 2.5 hour class. A breakdown of costs related to use of kerosene laterns to provide some illumination in the classrooms also is provided.
A group of students studying their workbooks by kerosene lantern in Sébénikoro near Kati
Karamogo Drissa Fané and chalkboard exercises by lantern-light in Sébénikoro near Kati.
New User Experience
We would like the user experience for someone receiving a new Kinkajou to more closely resemble that of a new computer owner. To wit, a new computer arrives in the box with a big paper diagram explaining how to connect everything and turn on the power. Once the computer starts, an interactive menu pops up explaining basic features like how to use input devices and navigate the operating system.
Here's an example setup diagram from Dell [PDF].
Our idea for a Kinkajou equivalent would be a sticker on the projector base, with a cartoon demonstrating how to connect the power and orient the projector, perhaps including text in Bambara, French and English (or whatever languages are appropriate for the setting). Inside the projector, the first few slides of every microfilm reel will explain more about how to use the machine, for example how to advance the film, adust the focus, and change the image size/brightness.
Moulaye Yatara, karamogo, or literacy teacher, in Digani, Mali
Expanding Microfilm Content
In observing the classes in session, we realized that the microfilm represents an opportunity to present all kinds of information to the class and teachers, beyond the classroom presentation material.
The samagoya method used in the literacy courses is new. In addition to the workbook that every student reads, the literacy teacher (or karamogo, in Bambara) receives a teachers manual that gives tips for each session. Despite the guide, we observed several instructions skipping or otherwise mangling steps.
Also, only one of the two karamogos in each class received training on the Kinkajou, and that was only a one-day session. At least one teacher was clearly uncomfortable using the projector. In Digani, the karamogo only used the Kinkajou for 15 minutes in the 2.5-hour class. The projected image was quite small. It isn't clear whether this karamogo received Kinkajou training.
Karamogos Moulaye Yatara and Martine Sogoba with Kinkajou #135 in Digani, near Segou
In the future, we like the idea of creating groupings of slides for each class, separated by blank slides to enable use of the projector as a light source:
- refresher slides on Kinkajou use (maybe a series of randomly repeating tips, for example how to arrange the classroom to get the best effects, how to get a brighter image)
- karamogo instructions for the lesson, and a general refresher on the samagoya literacy method
- the four instruction slides
Long Live Cardboard Boxes
Everyone we met is still using the original cardboard box to store and transport the Kinkajou. One teacher leaves the Kinkajou at a friend's house near the classroom, because the box is too inconvenient to carry on the half-kilometer walk home. The nifty battery pack, on the other hand, is easy to carry, and reminds her of a briefcase. She takes it home every day to charge in the mango grove near her house.
The amazingly long-lived Kinkajou box
Most people didn't consider the Kinkajou handle, well, a handle. It helps that Mali is very dry. A cardboard box in a tropical climate like Cote d'Ivoire would rot to shreds in a few weeks--presumably people would start to notice other ways to carry the projector around.
Broken Capacitor, K#135
Kinkajou #135, currently being using in the village of Digani in the Segou region, rattled when I picked it up. Attached are pictures of what I found inside. A capacitor had broken off the board, perhaps as a result of a bad solder connection and maybe some rough handling.
Board with missing capacitor
Attached is a technical assessment of the failure, and a recommendation for repair.Continue reading "Broken Capacitor, K#135"
Solar panel connector problems
The Mali team reports that the solar panel connector jack is emerging as another failure mode for the system. The problem appears to be that, once they've finished charging the battery, teachers tend to pull the solar panel connector out by the cord, instead of holding the connector.
This has lead to two connectors failing so far. Here you can see Kinkajou technician Emmanuel Coulibaly taking a battery voltage reading, something they do on every site visit, and before and after every classroom visit. In the photo you can see the power socket adapter he put together to make it easier to take readings.
Kinkajou technician Emmanuel Coulibaly taking a battery voltage reading
Here you can see Sitan Komina, the teacher (karamogo) responsible for this unit, showing her battery charge data sheet, where she records the time she connects and disconnects the solar panel every day, and the color of the LED on the charge controller window. DtM field rep Ousmane Samake said that she is the only teacher (out of six sites visited to date) where he's always found the battery charging. In some other sites, it looked like the panel had never left the box.
Sitan Komina, karamogo in Toubana (a village in the Koumantou region), with battery data sheet
The solar panel connector fails when metal pin pulls out of the plastic housing to the point where the solder joint breaks. Here we've pulled apart the clever repair effected by Komina's husband (by no means a professional electrician), using tape and some spare copper wire. Emmanuel later went back to the village to replace the connector entirely, using an identical part that is (we were happy to learn) available in Bamako electronics shops.
Solar panel connector, showing village repair
Kinkjou Delta: Driver Circuit Design Files
Constant-current power supply for Luxeon 5W LED with low-voltage warning and shut-off
Software Documentation, as shipped to Mali in first 45 prototypes, November 2004
Author: Tim McNerney
Revision: 12/14/2004 17:21
The microprocessor-based driver circuit for a 5W Luxeon LED implements
a constant-current power supply, with automatic shut-off if the
battery falls below approximately 10.5V, and visible warning below
kled-doc.txt - documentation for the software and hardware design
main.c - software source code
kled-rev1-final.zip - a zip archive of the Gerber file
kled-rev1-schematics.pdf - a PDF copy of the circuit schematic
led-driver-rev1-07-29-04-2145.ddb - Protel 99SE CAD database (original source of the schematics and PCB artwork)
Kinkajou Color Film Test
Use of the Kinkajou projector by IF&LS in India for daytime primary group education in rural areas is being explored. IF&LS offers a multimedia based projection system for group learning, but its cost and power requirements are limitations in many rural villages.
The difficult challenge for Kinkajou is that the curriculum content requirement includes text and color graphics, typically of photographic quality. Our current experience has been with content limited to monochrome text and simple graphics (black and white). The addition of color to images will increase the base density, adversely affecting light transmission, i.e. visible brightness.
We have conducted preliminary experiments using 35 mm Kodachrome images cut to 16mm format, to determine overall image brightness. Surprisingly, under "ideal" viewing conditions, ie darkened room, images were reasonably bright. We are sufficiently encouraged to proceed with production of sample color microfilm containing "typical" IF&LS content to demonstrate the systems potential.
Cutting a 35mm slide down to 16mm
Fitting the slide into the Kinkajou
Decent brightness under good conditions
We will also continue to pursue design solutions which will increase the available illumination, including improved transmission efficiency in the optics and higher power LEDs.
Feasibility Study for Local Microfilm Production
Local production of microfilm content remains a serious open question with the Kinkajou. Microfilming in volume involves three discrete steps: filming, developing the master film, and making duplicates from the master. Each step requires its own equipment and training. In the case of Mali, there is no infrastructure for microfilm and any production facility would have to be built from the ground up. Difficulties around building a micrographics laboratory in Mali include the high capital costs of this equipment, the lack of local expertise, and the unavailability of necessary chemistry and film.
The following report details the pricing and logistics of building such a facility, as well as recommendations based on these findings.
Mali Field Notes - Digani and Bambougou-Wèrè
As part of the ongoing pilot test of the Kinkajou in Mali, field representative Ousmane Samake and project technician Emmanuel Coulibaly have been visiting participating schools and evaluating the use and condition of the Kinkajous.
Of the 10 schools visited, half had Kinkajous that were in need of repair. The most common problem was that the jack that plugs into the solar panel charger had broken been broken.
Karamogos from the villages of Digani and Bambougou-Wèrè brought their Kinkajous to OMAES (the local NGO) for evaluation. In Digani's case, the second soldering point of the jack was deficient.
Broken connector jack of Digani's Kinkajou
In the case of Bambougou-Wèrè's Kinkajou, however, it seems that the cause of the breakage was a hungry goat!
Mali Field Notes - N'goye
Low battery charge was also a common issue across the sites. In the village of N'goye, the karamogo has come up with an innovative process for charging the Kinkajou. He has set up a permanent housing for th solar panel on his own roof and extended the wire down to the floor. Every day he comes home and plugs in the battery.
Kinkajou battery pack recharging
Solar panel on the roof of the karamogo's home
Extension wire from the roof
Mali Field Notes - Dougabougou
In the village of Dougabougou, the karamogo addressed the problem of low light in the classroom by splicing a wire off of the Kinkajou battery in order to power a 5W car lamp.
Battery plug for lamp
The Kinkajou, lamp, and battery wired together in the classroom
This "shortcut" reportedly shorted out later when the Kinkajou was plugged into the battery. Repairs were carried out by the karamogo, who bought a 12V car battery and a new lamp for use in his own home when classes were out of session.
Mali Field Notes - Songuéla I
Literacy classes in the village of Songuéla I have been shifted to the daytime, providing an excellent opportunity to test the Kinkajou under different conditions. Field rep Ousmane Samake reports that the karamogo closes the doors and windows of the classroom in order to achieve the required darkness. The daytime temperatures make heat dissipation for the Kinkajou difficult, so it is only used 15 minutes at a time.
Mali Field Notes - Kléla and Ngorodougou
Community ownership is a crucialissue in development work. If a community has no stake in a project, there is often no incentive to initiate local innovation or even maintain the project. It was encouraging to learn that, in an effort to address the problem of lighting during nighttime Kinkajou classes, some villages purchased batteries and lamps of their own accord. In the village of Kléla, the former mayor bought a lighting system for the class.
Car battery used to power lighting system in Kléla
Lamps and wiring in the Kléla classroom
In Ngorodougou, community ownership of the project resulted in a few local innovations:
- The learners pooled money to buy a car lamp and a battery for the classroom
- Part of the classroom wall was painted white to serve a "screen" for the Kinkajou projection
- The solar panel wire was repaired by a local technician
B&W Kinkajou projection on wall "screen"
Car battery used to power the lighting system
Bright car lamp in use during a nighttime literacy class
Ngorodougou Kinkajou solar panel with repaired cord
Mali Field Notes - Sorocoro
In the village of Sorocoro, the karamogo had some difficulty with keeping the battery charged using the solar panel. It was found that the panel was being placed in partial shade at an orientation that didn't capture the maximum solar energy flux. Field rep Ousmane Soumake coached the karamogo on how to use the solar battery charger properly.
Solar panel in partial shade, charging behind a fence
Mali Field Notes - Sendala
The most serious of the Kinkajou malfunctioned occured in Sendala, where the film advance mechanism had become stuck. The film had come off the spools and was jamming the machine, but did not tear.
Despooled film inside the Sendala Kinkajou
View of spool and advance mechanism
Here the school Parents' Association pooled their resources to purchase an oil lamp for the classroom. Unfortunately, the light from this lamp was insufficient and there were 18 pocket flashlights being used by individuals.
The karamogo also reported an imbalance in the battery case. Upon inspection, it was found that the battery had become glued to the opposite side of the case.
Opening up the battery case reveals the source of the imbalance
During classes, the Kinkajou projection was quite small and hard to discern. Field rep Ousmane Samake coached the karamogo on adjusting the size of the projection and on rewinding and advancing the microfilm.
Harvard Engineering Student Completes Report on Kinkajou Power Supply Prototype
A human-generated power supply system, based on an easy-to-use and readily available foot treadle, can generate enough electricity to power the Kinkajou, concludes Lindsey Cameron, an Engineering undergraduate at Harvard. Lindsey recently accompanied the DtM team to Mali in March for a field test of the treadle design, which she developed as part of her Senior Design Project.
Over the course of the past year, Lindsey has been working to create a proof-of-concept prototype for a sturdy, low-cost alternative to the Kinkajou's existing power supply system, which currently relies on an expensive solar panel and parts not available in Mali. After examining the efficiency and feasibility of other potential energy sources, including hand-cranks and bicycles, Lindsey selected the foot treadle for its low cost, significant energy output, high availability, and user-friendly nature. Her final sytem combines a sewing machine, DC generator, charging circuit, battery, and status light indicators into a cost-effective power supply and battery-charging device. Since almost all villages in Mali already have sewing machines with foot treadles, the design reduces the capital costs required and even presents an opportunity for income generation for the local tailor.
A treadle, with fly wheel and foot pedal
During the field test, Lindsey brought her prototype to 6 villages in southern Mali, where 16 Malians, ranging in age from 7 to 60, tested it and provided valuable data and feedback. The field data suggests that the average user could completely charge the battery in 26 minutes of work, and the majority of users reported that the treadle was easy to use. The device was also tested by a local tailor, who set a record for energy output and loved the idea of another profitable use for his own sewing machine. Lindsey also presented the prototype to World Education and USAID Mali for a design review. Both organizations were impressed by the design's low cost, adaptability, and reliance on local materials, and made several suggestions for how to increase performance and ease of use.
Lindsey (left) watches as a volunteer tests out the device in Mali
How to Build an LCD Multimedia Projector
.:thePooch:. , a group in the computing department of Lancaster University, UK, has developed a low-cost LCD multimedia projector. It consists of wooden casing, a stripped-down portable hand-television, a magnifying lens, and a high-intensity spotlight. Their site offers step-by-step instructions.
Mali Field Rep Provides Kinkajou Redesign Recommendations
Ousmane Samake, DtM's Field Representative in Mali, has completed his final redesign recommendations for the Kinkajou, following the conclusion of the first phase of the Kinkajou's pilot test. These recommendations are the culmination of observations and evaluations of the Kinkajou in use over the course of the 6-month pilot test, in which 45 communities across Mali participated. Ousmane and project technician Emmanuel Coulibaly visted 10 participating communities and evaluated the use and condition of the Kinkajous at these sites. In particular, they looked for common technical issues concerning the day-to-day operation of the Kinkajou and areas in which teachers could use their Kinkajous more effectively in the classroom. Ousmane's redesign recommendations include proposed changes in microfilm content, teacher training methods, and the monitoring and evaluation of the pilot study.
Read his complete report: [Word DOC]